Create a robot using primitive objects.
History Of Robots
The history of robots goes all the way back to Greek mythology. Check out a slideshow of the history of robots here. Be sure to read the notes associated with the slideshare to read about each robot pictured.
Open Robot Sketch File
Download The Additive Project Robot Template file from required files tab. OPEN 123D Design. ACCESS the drop down menu from the 123D Design logo in the top left corner of the screen and SELECT Open. In the pop-up box that appears, CHOOSE Browse My Computer.
NAVIGATE to The Additive Project Robot Template file and OPEN it. The grid should display an outline drawing of a robot.
Orient Camera to Top View
On the right side of the grid field, locate the cube Orientation Tool. Hovering over the cube, use the drop down menu in the lower right corner to SELECT Orthographic View.
HIGHLIGHT the cube orientation tool and CLICK on the Top face to rotate the field view. If needed, SELECT the Fit tool from the vertical tool bar on the right. You should now have a frontal view of the Robot Template.
Add Sphere Object Joints
Using the horizontal tool bar above the grid field, SELECT the Primitives icon and CHOOSE the Sphere from the horizontal drop down that appears. Your pointer now controls a sphere which can be placed on the grid plane.
PLACE the sphere over one of the circles that make up the Robot Template. The circles are sized to correspond to the default dimensions of the sphere. The sphere will ‘snap’ into the two dimensional shape.
LEFT CLICK to lock the sphere into place. REPEAT three times to complete the placement of spheres on the shoulders and hips.
Add Shoulders and Legs
Using the Primitives menu again SELECT the Box. PLACE the boxes on the grid to create the shoulders and upper and lower legs.
Add Head Component
The next steps involve two methods of scaling primitive objects.
CHOOSE Box and PLACE it on the head of the robot.
Scale Head Using Uniform Scaling
SELECT the object so that it is highlighted in green. A toolbar will appear towards the bottom of the grid field. SELECT the Scale tool – second from the left, a cube and arrow icon. The Scale tool bar will appear.
You will notice the default settings are to Scale: Uniform and Factor: 1. A white arrow will also appear on the object. To scale the box up or down, SELECT the arrow and DRAG outwards to increase its size. You will notice the Factor will increase in the tool bar. ADJUST the box to the size of the square head on the template and adjust placement.
Alternatively, you may scale the object by TYPING the factor directly into the tool bar. The default size of the box is four by four (4x4) units on the grid. To make it exactly five by five (5x5), TYPE in a factor of 1.25 (adding 25% to equal 125% of its default size). Uniform scaling allows for an increase and decrease in the object’s size while keeping all proportions the same.
Add Body Component
PLACE a box on the outline of the body of the robot.
Scale The Body Component
SELECT the object so that it is highlighted in green. SELECT the Scale Tool. On the toolbar, SELECT Scale: Non Uniform.
Three fields will appear in the toolbar, allowing you to adjust the height (X), width (Y), and depth (Z). For the moment, we are only concerned with the X + Y dimensions. Two white arrows (since you are in the frontal view, you cannot see the depth arrow) will also appear on the object.
MANIPULATE the arrows to adjust the size of the box until it corresponds with the dimensions of the body on the Template.
Alternatively, IDENTIFY the correct factors by which to increase the height and width and TYPE them into the X + Y fields. (In this case the body is 7 units tall, a factor of 1.75 in x; 9 units wide, a factor of 2.25 in y.)
ADJUST the placement of the box on the Template if needed.
Add Hand Component
CHOOSE Box and place it on the right hand of the robot (on the left as you are facing the screen).
Scale Hand Using Non-Uniform Scaling
SELECT the object so that it is highlighted in green. SELECT the Scale tool. On the tool bar, SELECT Scale: Non Uniform.
MANIPULATE the arrows on the object until it corresponds with the dimensions of the hands on the Template.
Alternatively, IDENTIFY the correct factors by which to increase the height and width and TYPE them into the X + Y fields. (In this case the hand is 1 unit tall, a factor of .25; 4 units wide, a factor of 1.)
ADJUST the placement of the box on the Template if needed.
Copying and pasting allows you to ensure corresponding elements are exactly the same size.
SELECT the hand you have placed, highlighting it in green. CTRL+C to copy and CTRL+V to paste.
In 123D Design, the pasted object appears directly on top of the copied object. The pasted object appears highlighted with a reorientation tool (vertical and horizontal arrows and the arc of a circle) available.
Move Duplicated Hand
GRAB the pasted object with your pointer and DRAG to the outline of the opposite hand. As you drag, you will notice the move/reorientation tool displays three fields. These correspond to X, Y, and Z distances.
Since each unit on the grid is 5mm x 5mm, and the distance between the hands on the template is 15 units, the horizontal (Y) distance between hands is 75mm. To ensure that you place the object precisely, you can TYPE X: 0.00mm; Y: +75.00mm; Z: 0.00mm)
Insert Remaining Components
Use the methods and tools learned in previous steps to INSERT, SCALE and COPY + PASTE the remaining body components: neck, waist, pelvis, arms, knees, feet, eyes and mouth.
Note: The mouth will begin as a solid object in 3D space, but its function is to remove material. It will be placed to overlap with the head and, using the subtract tool, the amount of overlap you see between this object and the head block will determine the depth of the mouth opening.
Hint: For the eyes, SELECT the sphere and Scale,or try a new shape and use the cylinder.
Hint:For the eyes, COPY, PASTE and DRAG to get the second one in place.
Hint: Use the same method for the knees and feet. Once you have your second knee in place, select one then use SHIFT + CLICK to select the other, then COPY, PASTE, and DRAG the pair to create the feet.
Rotate Camera View
The next steps involve placement and scaling on the Z axis. Locate the cube orientation tool in the top right corner of the grid field. SELECT the arrow to the left of the cube, rotating the grid to view its left side. This gives you a view of the objects as they lay on the grid plane, as if you were lying on the floor looking at them sideways.
From this angle it is apparent that objects scaled using uniform scaling were also scaled on the Z axis, meaning that as their length and width grew, so did their depth. For some objects this now means that a portion of the object now lies below the grid plane. Some objects were also placed on top of others when snapped into place. Everyone’s side view may look different at this step depending on how the items were placed and scaled.
From this view, align objects on the Z axis only. SELECT an object, highlighting it in green. SELECT the Move tool from the toolbar that appears at the bottom of the screen (the first on the left, resembling an ordinal compass with an arc). SELECT the arrow pointing to the right, which is up in the 3D landscape, and DRAG the object until it lays flat on the grid (align with the other components of the robot).
For the Robot’s eyes, you may adjust the depth to which they protrude from the head by the amount they overlap with the head.
The inverse is true of the mouth; the object will be subtracted, so the amount of overlap between the mouth and head will determine the depth of the Robot’s mouth opening.
Remove Template Outline
Now that you have completed the process of populating the Robot template with the component objects to see your robot in 3-dimensions locate the cube orientation tool in the top right corner of the grid field. SELECT the house symbol to the top left of the cube. The home view orients you at an angle from the 3 different axis giving you a perspective view of your robot.
Now that you have completed placing all of your objects you can now hide the template of the robot. On the vertical toolbar at the right, locate the Show/Hide tool. It is third from the bottom and resembles an eye overtop of a square. In the popup menu which appears, CLICK the Hide Sketches option.
Scale Chest Component
To create variety in the robot’s body, SELECT the chest component and use non-uniform scaling to adjust the depth (the objects’ proportions on the Z axis).
SELECT the chest. SELECT the Scale tool and SELECT Non-uniform scaling. Use the arrow protruding from the chest (the z axis scale tool) and PULL up to scale on the z-axis.
Hint: Selecting objects may be easier in the home view, since the perspective allows for clear distinction between elements. In side view, for instance, the chest is hidden behind the arm.
Hint: To gain a more detailed view of the relationship of the chest to your other body parts you may return to side view once the chest is selected and scale from that view.
Note: Think about the appropriate proportions of a humanoid figure.
Scale the Arms
From the Home view, SELECT an arm, HOLD SHIFT and SELECT the other arm. Selecting multiple objects allows for identical scaling. RETURN to side view or remain in home and SELECT non-uniform scaling. If in home view, be sure to select the arrow associated with the Z axis as you scale.
Proportion Your Robot
Using the multi-select function and your new skills, continue to scale remaining components to your desired proportions.
Create Mouth Opening
Note: Before proceeding be sure to SAVE your file as RobotUnmerged so that you can make adjustments, swap out shapes etc. at another point should you wish to do so. You will want this file if you continue on to the next project Robot Customization Project.
To create the mouth you need to subtract the mouth shape from the head object. In the top toolbar, SELECT the Combine menu and the Subtract tool. A popup will appear with two options. Target Solid/Mesh will be highlighted. This is the target from which material will be subtracted. SELECT the head object. The pop-up will automatically highlight the second option, Source Solid/Mesh. The shape and size of the object selected will be the source of the material to be subtracted. SELECT the mouth object. ENTER to complete the action.
Combine Objects into One Object
Before doing this step be sure to Save your model for future manipulation. Make sure not to save over this file when you save the robot the next time. On the top tool bar, SELECT the Combine menu and the Merge tool. SELECT an object, like the head, as the Target Solid/Mesh. SELECT an object which touches it, like one of the eyes, as the Source Solid/Mesh. ENTER to complete the action.
You may also SELECT the first object and, HOLDING the Shift key, SELECT a series of other contiguous objects, hitting ENTER to merge the group.
Once you have merged the items be sure to select and move the components to be sure they have combined. If there is any space, even if you can’t see it, they will not combine. SELECT the Robot. The whole object should be highlighted in green. If it is not, the object has not successfully merged. Spaces between shapes may be quite small, requiring you to zoom in to make minor adjustments in placement or scaling.
If you have open gaps that prevent you from combining objects you can go through your robot and by moving or scaling objects make them overlap to fill these gaps. Be sure when moving objects to make use of the multiple select option if you want them to remain symmetrical.